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Description of Xoloitzcuintli

The Breed History

Since the 1500s these unusual dogs have been reported, and are thought to have originated in Mexico. Their history perhaps goes back to ancient societies such as the Aztecs since dog skulls have been found that resemble this breed's in size and shape that date to 3300 years ago in Central America. The name derives from the Aztec word for God "Xoloti" and "Itzcuintli", the Aztec word for dog. Commonly, these dogs are referred to as the Mexican Hairless. AKC recognition occurred in 2011. Molecular genetic (mitochondrial DNA) results do not support a New World domestication of Xoloitzcuintli, or close association with other hairless breeds of dogs. Despite their phenotypic uniformity, the Xoloitzcuintli has a surprisingly high level of mtDNA sequence variation, suggesting that the breed was founded with a large number of dogs from outbred populations.

Breeding for Function

Throughout their history, their prime purpose has been companionship; perhaps they were also the object of sacrifice in ancient Aztec, Toltec and Mayan civilizations. They were thought to have healing powers because of their warm skin temperature and were used by arthritis sufferers for that purpose.

Physical Characteristics


Height at Withers: 11-12" (28-31cm),

Weight: 9-18 lb (4-8 kg)


Height at Withers: 12-15" (30-38 cm).

Weight: 13-22 lb (6-10kg)


Height at Withers: 16-22.5" (41-57 cm)

Weight: 20-31 lb (9-14 kg)

Coat: There are two haircoat types: Hairless and Powder Puff. The latter is not accepted for show purposes. Colors include orange, black, slate, liver, bronze, and charcoal.

Longevity: 12-15 years

Points of Conformation: This is a small finely put together dog with a noble carriage, and similar to sight hounds in body structure. Limbs are straight boned. The somewhat almond-shaped eyes are wide set, dark brown, and moderate in size and depth of setting. The muzzle tapers to a point, nose is black, ears are erect and triangular with pointed tips, and sometimes traces of hair exist on the top of the skull, on the tip of the tail and around the toes in the hairless type. They have a moderately deep thorax, and the abdomen is well tucked up. The fine tail hangs down and tapers to a point at the tarsus. The long neck is slightly arched and finely built, and the feet are hare-like in conformation. Their gait is quick and elastic.

Thanks for description - Animal life club

Photo Gallery of Xoloitzcuintli